Assessment of the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

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Assessment of the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Alexandra Agache, Andra Bîrligea, Sabin Botea, Mihai Cirstea, Octavian Mihalache, Petronel Mustăţea
Original article, no. 5, 2021
Article DOI: 10.21614/chirurgia.116.5.620
Background: The increased incidence of both colorectal cancer and diabetes mellitus, as well as the fact that they are important causes of high morbidity and especially mortality, place the two pathologies on the list of priorities of the health system. There are studies which have observed that diabetes mellitus is directly involved in carcinogenesis and is an independent risk factor for colorectal cancer. The diabetic patient requires a complex medical-surgical approach, so setting the risk criteria for them can be the starting point for improving the survival rate.

Materials and methods: The association between colorectal cancer and diabetes mellitus as well as screening criteria were analyzed in a descriptive prospective study (442 patients) conducted in the Dr. I. Cantacuzino Clinical Hospital during 2017-2018. In the study, patients were distributed in two clusters, one with diabetes mellitus (N = 194) and one without diabetes mellitus (N = 248) in which basic clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed followed by screening colonoscopies.

Results: Statistically significant (p 0.005) correlations were highlighted between 7 of the variables tested and the positive results on colonoscopy, which were subsequently combined to achieve a risk score.

Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor and a negative prognostic factor for colorectal cancer. The risk score described as a result of this study is a feasible, simple solution for early detection of precursor lesions or neoplasms with the ultimate goal of improving the prognosis and survival of these patient.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, diabetes mellitus, screening criteria